Transfer Point Glucan 300®

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A Strong Immune System is the First Line of Defense





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IMMUNOLOGISTS have long distinguished between cellular and humoral immune systems.  It has become clear that these two are closely intertwined.  Almost all antigens evoke both responses to some degree.  However, one arm is usually more effective than the other and regulatory mechanisms end up directing to one side or the other.


The Immune Response Enhanced by

Beta-1, 3D Glucan

by A.J. Lanigan

The immune response is the body’s way of defending itself against foreign substances that invade it.  These invaders, like viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc., cause infection and disease.  The immune system’s job is a complicated process.  It involves the coordinated efforts of several types of white blood cells.  The pictorial below depicts the process by showing how the immune system destroys viruses.





The immune response begins when invaders like viruses enter the body.  White blood cells, called macrophages, encounter the invader and consume it.  The macrophage does not care what the invader might be.  It only knows self or non-self.  Meanwhile, other viruses look for nearby cells to infect.  Beta-1,3D Glucan, an extract from the cell wall of bakers yeast, turns the weak cells into strong cells.  This allows your immune system to be “all that it can be”.  Beta-1,3D Glucan modulates and potentiates the macrophage and keeps it in a more prepared state.  With this balancing effect, all subsequent immune response improves.  The Beta Glucan and the macrophages are oblivious to the type of invader or the health of the host.  Again, the macrophage only knows self vs. non-self.  The Beta Glucan treated host will enjoy an increase in its arsenal against unwanted offenders.


Next, the macrophage digests the virus and displays pieces of the virus (antigens) on its surface.  Antigens may be any substance introduced into the body that the immune system recognizes as non-self.  Nearby cells may become infected by the attacking viruses.  In a healthy immune system, these infected cells will come under attack, be destroyed, and be removed before they can be used to spread the illness.


Unique among the different helper T cells (another class of white blood cells) in the body, one particular helper T cell now recognizes the antigen displayed and binds to the macrophage.  There are at least two subsets of the helper T cells, the Th1 and the Th2.  They make the decisions as to what type response will be ordered.  Up and down regulatory factors transmitted by the pair of cells (macrophage  + T helper) provide many variations for dealing with the invaders.




This union stimulates the production of chemical substances – such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by the macrophage, and interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-y) by the T cell – that allow intercellular communication.  These cytokines/lymphokines (fax messages) are required for T cell activation and response.  Mere activation is not enough.  The Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) depending on the type (MHC I or II) of presentation gives co-stimulation (a second go-ahead signal).  CD28 (blood test) reflects this co-stimulation and activation process.




As part of the continuing process, IL-1 helps activate B and T cells; IL-2 instructs other helper T’s and a different class of T cells, the killer T’s (CTLs or cytotoxic T lymphocytes), to multiply.  The proliferating helper T’s in turn release substances that cause B cells to multiply and produce antibodies.  B cells are prepared to recognize antigen without preprocessing.  The T cell cannot recognize antigen in its natural state.  It must first be broken down and the fragments bound to a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecule by the APC.  The macrophage is an APC.  Beta Glucan causes its receptor sites (key slots) to be readied for these presentation chores.



The killer T cells (trained assassins) now begin shooting holes in cells that have been infected by viruses or other pathogens.  The killer T cell (CTL or cytotoxic T lymphocyte) becomes a “trained assassin”.  They respond to the MHC 1 complex, which is found on almost all body cells.  The CTL has the ability to seek and destroy infected human cells in a specific manner.  With the injection of powerful chemicals, these infected cells are killed before they can be used to spread a disease.  Natural Killer (NK) cells are large, granule-filled lymphocytes that take on tumor cells and infected body cells.  They are known as “natural” killers because they attack without first having to recognize specific antigens.  Like the macrophage, if it is not “self”, it will proceed to kill.  NK cells and CTLs both kill on contact.  The killer binds to the target, aims its weapons and then releases a lethal burst of chemicals to punch holes in the target.



When a Class II MHC molecule is presented by the APC, the B cell /antibody process begins.  This is the humoral side of the immune system.  The antibodies released by the B cells bind to antigens on the surfaces of free-floating viruses.  Besides making it easier for macrophages to destroy viruses, this binding signals blood components called complement to puncture holes in the viruses.  The Complement System is made up of 25 proteins that work with the antibodies to destroy invaders.  They facilitate phagocytosis (eating by phagocytes) or they directly puncture the invader’s cell membrane.  C3 is the key protein that triggers the “complement cascade”.  This cascade results into a “membrane attack complex” that literally blasts a hole into the antibody marked prey.  Fragments thrown off by this process bring into play mast cells and basophils.  By releasing their chemical contents, they produce the redness, warmth, and swelling of the inflammatory response.


Finally, as the infection is brought under control, the activated T and B cells are turned off by suppressor T cells (a T-8 subset).  However, a few “memory cells” (another T-8 subset) remain behind to respond quickly if the same virus attacks again.  Immunologists believe that the body fights cancer in much the same way it seeks to eliminate viruses.  Further study of the immune system is expected to reveal ways to bolster it, allowing the body to become a more active partner in the fight against cancer.

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Balance of cytokine production is important.  Autoimmune diseased patients frequently display low IL-2 and high gamma-Interferon.  Absolute causes are not established but there are strong indications towards viruses and environmental factors (i.e., chemicals and certain drugs that alter recognized self to non-self cell types).  Due to the high incidence of autoimmune disease in women, heredity and sex hormones are suspected since Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) responses are relative to certain genes.

There are numerous studies showing the safety and effectiveness of Beta-1,3D Glucan in a host for immune bolstering, immune dysfunction, immune dysregulation and last but not least, the selective lowering of LDL cholesterol.

To maximize your uptake of the Beta-1,3D Glucan, it should always be taken on an empty stomach.  Wait at least 30 minutes before eating or drinking anything.  A small amount of pure water should be used to swallow the capsule (No coffee, tea, juice, etc.).

Normally, simple sugars would be broken down in the digestive system, converted to glucose and used for energy.  This does not occur with a long chain polysaccharide like Beta-1,3D Glucan.  The polysaccharide is carried across the lining of the small intestine into the lymphatic system.  It is lined with enterones and enterocytes.  They produce a sticky substance on their surface called glycocalix or “the fuzz”.  In this glycocalix, binding sites (receptors) sit ready to grab the Beta-1,3D Glucan.  From the lymphatic system, the Beta-1,3D Glucan is carried into the blood stream.  This process is called endocytosis and pinocytosis.

In the area of autoimmune disease, the removal of diseased cells, debris, and harmful molecules from the body and blood are important.  Beta glucans play a role here.  Scavenging and debris cleansing abilities of the properly modulated macrophage can assist these processes.


In various parts of the body, macrophages may be called:

Alveolar cells – lungs

Interdigitating cells – various

Kupffer cells – liver

Langerhans cells – skin

Mesangial cells – kidneys

Microglial cells – brain

Monocyte cells – blood

Neutrophil cells – various

Serosal cells – endothelial layer

Synovial cells - joints




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A Strong Immune System is the First Line of Defense


These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.